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Queen of the Divine Will

The Virgin Mary in the Kingdom of the Divine Will

 From the writings of the Servant of God, Luisa Piccarreta

Meditations for the Month of May 

Prayer to the Celestial Queen for each day of the month of May

Immaculate Queen, my Celestial Mother, I come onto your maternal knees to abandon myself in your arms as your dear child, and to ask of You, with the most ardent sighs – in this month consecrated to You – the greatest of graces: that You admit me to live in the Kingdom of the Divine Will.

Holy Mama, You who are the Queen of this Kingdom, admit me to live in It as your child, that It may no longer be deserted, but populated by your children. Therefore, Sovereign Queen, I entrust myself to You, that You may lead my steps into the Kingdom of the Divine Will; and clinging to your maternal hand, You will lead all of my being to live perennial life in the Divine Will. You will be my Mama, and to You, my Mama, do I give my will, that You may exchange it with the Divine Will, and so I may be sure I will not go out of Its Kingdom. Therefore I beg You to illumine me in order to make me comprehend what ‘Will of God’ means.

Hail Mary…

Little Sacrifice of the Month:

Each morning, midday and night – three times a day – let us go onto the knees of our Celestial Mama, and say to Her: “My Mama, I love You; and You – love me, and give a sip of Divine Will to my soul. Give me your blessing, that I may do all of my actions under your maternal gaze.

The Queen of Heaven in the Kingdom of the Divine Will.

The Second Step of the Divine Will in the Queen of Heaven.

The First Smile of the Most Holy Trinity over Her Immaculate Conception.

The soul:

Here I am again upon your maternal knees, to listen to your lessons. Celestial Mama, this poor child entrusts herself to your power. I am too poor, I know; but I know that You love me as a Mother, and this is enough for me to fling myself into your arms, that You may have compassion for me; and opening the ears of my heart, You will let me hear your most sweet voice, in order to give me your sublime lessons. You, holy Mama, will purify my heart by the touch of your maternal fingers, in order to enclose in it the celestial dew of your celestial teachings.

Lesson of the Queen of Heaven:

My child, listen to Me: if you knew how much I love you, you would have more confidence in your Mama, and you would let not even one of my words escape you. You must know that I not only keep you inscribed in my Heart, but in this Heart I have a maternal fiber that, more than mother, makes me love my child. Therefore I want you to hear the great prodigy that the Supreme Fiat operated in Me, so that you, by imitating Me, may give Me the great honor of being my queen daughter. How my Heart, drowned in love, yearns to have around Me the noble cohort of my little queens!

So, listen to Me, my beloved child.

As soon as the Divine Fiat poured Itself over my human seed in order to prevent the sad effects of sin, the Divinity smiled, and put Itself in feast, seeing in my seed that human seed, pure and holy, just as it came out of their creative hands in the creation of man. So the Divine Fiat took the second step in Me, by carrying my human seed, purified and sanctified by It, before the Divinity, that It might pour out in torrents upon my littleness in the act of being conceived. Recognizing in Me Its creative work, beautiful and pure, the Divinity smiled with satisfaction, and wanting to celebrate Me, the Celestial Father poured upon Me seas of power; the Son, seas of wisdom; the Holy Spirit, seas of love. So I was conceived in the endless light of the Divine Will; and in the midst of these divine seas, which my littleness could not contain, I formed highest waves in order to send them back as homage of love and glory to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.

The Trinity was all eyes upon Me, and so as not to be surpassed by Me in love, smiling at Me and caressing Me, sent Me yet more seas, which embellished Me so much, that as soon as my little humanity was formed, I acquired the enrapturing virtue of enrapturing my Creator. And He really let Himself be enraptured; so much so, that between Me and God it was always feast. We denied nothing to each other. I never denied Him anything, nor did He. But do you know who animated Me with this enrapturing power? The Divine Will, reigning in Me as life. The power of the Supreme Being was mine, and therefore We had equal power to enrapture each other.

Now, my child, listen to your Mama: know that I love you very much, and would like to see your soul filled with my own seas. These seas of mine are swollen, and want to pour themselves out; but in order for them to do this, you must empty yourself of your will, so that the Divine Will may take the second step over you, and constituting Itself as principle of life in your soul, It may call the attention of the Celestial Father, of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, to pour themselves upon you with their overflowing seas. But in order to do this, They want to find their own Will in you, because They do not want to entrust their seas of power, of wisdom and of unspeakable beauty to your human will

Child most dear to Me, listen to your Mama; place your hand upon your heart and tell Me your secrets: how many times have you been unhappy, tortured, embittered, because you did your will? Know that you have cast out a Divine Will, and have fallen into the abyss of evils. It wanted to render you pure and holy, happy and beautiful – of an enchanting beauty; and you, by doing your own will, waged war against It, and, in sorrow, you cast It out of Its dear dwelling – your soul.

Listen, child of my Heart, it is a sorrow for your Mama not to see the Sun of the Divine Fiat in you, but the darkness of the night of your human will. But, come – courage! If you promise to place your will into my hands, I, your Celestial Mama, will take you in my arms. I will place you upon my knees, and I will reorder the life of the Divine Will in you; so you too, after so many tears, will form my smile, my feast, and the smile and the feast of the Most Holy Trinity.

The soul:

Celestial Mama, if you love me so much, I beg You not to allow me to come down from your maternal knees; and as soon as You see that I am about to do my will, watch over my poor soul, and enclosing me in your Heart, let the power of your Love burn up my will. In this way, I will change your tears into smiles of delight.

Little Sacrifice:

Today, to honor Me, you will come up on my knees as many as three times, and giving Me your will, you will say to Me: “My Mama, I want this will of mine to be yours, that You may exchange it with the Divine Will.”

Ejaculatory Prayer:

Sovereign Queen, with your Divine Rule, knock down my will, so that the seed of the Divine Will may spring up within me.





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 Queen of the Divine Will

The Virgin Maryin the Kingdom of the Divine Will

 From the writings of the Servant of God, Luisa Piccarreta


Meditations for the Month of May 

May 6, 1930

Luisa Piccarreta, Little Daughter of the Divine Will 

Maternal Appeal of the Queen of Heaven 

Dearest child, I feel the irresistible need to come down from Heaven to make you my maternal visits. If you assure Me of your filial love and faithfulness, I will remain always with you in your soul, to be your teacher, model, example and most tender Mother.

I come to invite you to enter into the Kingdom of your Mama – the Kingdom of the Divine Will – and I knock at the door of your heart, that you may open it to Me. You know, with my own hands I bring you this book as gift; I offer it to you with maternal care so that in your turn, in reading it, you may learn to live of Heaven and no longer of earth.

This book is of gold, my child. It will form your spiritual fortune and your happiness also on earth. In it you will find the fount of all goods: if you are weak, you will acquire strength; if you are tempted, you will achieve victory; if you have fallen into sin, you will find the compassionate and powerful hand which will raise you again. If you feel afflicted, you will find comfort; if cold, the surest way to get warm; if hungry, you will enjoy the delicious food of the Divine Will. With It you will lack nothing; you will no longer be alone, because your Mama will keep you sweet company and with all her every maternal care will take on the commitment to making you happy. I, Celestial Empress, will take care of all your needs, provided that you agree to live united with Me.

If you knew my yearnings, my ardent sighs, and also the tears I shed for my children…! If you knew how I burn with desire that you listen to my lessons, all of Heaven, and learn to live of Divine Will…!

In this book you will see wonders; you will find a Mama who loves you so much as to sacrifice her own beloved Son for you, in order to allow you to live of that very life from which She lived on earth.

O please! Do not give Me this sorrow – do not reject Me. Accept this gift of Heaven I am bringing you; welcome my visit and my lessons. Know that I will go all over the world; I will go to each individual, to all families, to religious communities, to every nation, to all peoples, and if needed, I will go about for entire centuries until, as Queen, I have formed my people, and as Mother, my children, who would know the Divine Will and let It reign everywhere. Here is the purpose of this book explained to you. Those who will welcome it with love will be the first fortunate children to belong to the Kingdom of the Divine Fiat, and with gold characters I will write their names in my maternal Heart.

Do you see, my child? That same infinite love of God, which wanted to use Me in the Redemption to make the Eternal Word descend upon earth, is now calling Me into the field once again, entrusting to Me the difficult task, the sublime mandate to form the children of the Kingdom of His Divine Will on earth. Therefore, with maternal care I put myself to work, preparing for you the way which will lead you to this happy Kingdom. For this purpose I will give you sublime and celestial lessons and, finally, I will teach you special and new prayers, through which you will bind the heavens, the sun, the Creation, my very life and that of my Son, and all the acts of the saints, so that in your name they may beseech the adorable Kingdom of the Divine Will. These prayers are the most powerful because they bind the divine work itself. Through them God will feel disarmed and conquered by the creature. Confident of this help, you will hasten the coming of His most happy Kingdom, and with Me you will obtain that the Divine Will be done on earth as it is in Heaven, according to the desire of the Divine Master.

Courage, my child; make Me content, and I will bless you.


Prayer to the Celestial Queen for each day of the month of May

Immaculate Queen, my Celestial Mother, I come onto your maternal knees to abandon myself in your arms as your dear child, and to ask of You, with the most ardent sighs – in this month consecrated to You – the greatest of graces: that You admit me to live in the Kingdom of the Divine Will.

Holy Mama, You who are the Queen of this Kingdom, admit me to live in It as your child, that It may no longer be deserted, but populated by your children. Therefore, Sovereign Queen, I entrust myself to You, that You may lead my steps into the Kingdom of the Divine Will; and clinging to your maternal hand, You will lead all of my being to live perennial life in the Divine Will. You will be my Mama, and to You, my Mama, do I give my will, that You may exchange it with the Divine Will, and so I may be sure I will not go out of Its Kingdom. Therefore I beg You to illumine me in order to make me comprehend what ‘Will of God’ means.

Hail Mary…

Little Sacrifice of the Month:

Each morning, midday and night – three times a day – let us go onto the knees of our Celestial Mama, and say to Her: “My Mama, I love You; and You – love me, and give a sip of Divine Will to my soul. Give me your blessing, that I may do all of my actions under your maternal gaze.

 Day One

The Queen of Heaven in the Kingdom of the Divine Will.

The First Step of the Divine Will in the Immaculate Conception of the Celestial Mama.

The soul to her Immaculate Queen:

Here I am, O most sweet Mama, prostrate before You. Today is the first day of the month of May, consecrated to You, in which all your children want to offer You their little flowers to prove to You their love, and to bind your love to loving them; and I see You as though descending from the celestial Fatherland, attended by cohorts of Angels, to receive the beautiful roses, the humble violets, the chaste lilies of your children, giving them your smiles of love, your graces and blessings in return. And pressing the gifts of your children to your maternal womb, You bring them with You to Heaven, to keep them as pledges and crowns for the moment of their death.

Celestial Mama, in the midst of many, I, who am the littlest, the neediest of your children, want to come up onto your maternal lap, to bring You, not flowers and roses, but a sun each day. But my Mama must help her child, giving me her lessons of Heaven, to teach me how to form these divine suns, in order to give You the most beautiful homage and the most pure love. Dear Mama, You have understood what your child wants: I want You to teach me how to live of Divine Will. And I, transforming my acts and all of myself into Divine Will according to your teachings, will bring to your lap each day, all of my acts changed into suns.

Lesson of the Queen of Heaven:

Blessed child, your prayer wounded my maternal Heart, and as it draws Me from Heaven, I am already close to my child, to give her my lessons, all of Heaven.

Look at Me, dear child: thousands of Angels surround Me and, reverent, are all in waiting, to hear Me speak of that Divine Fiat whose fount I possess, more than anyone; I know Its admirable secrets, Its infinite joys, Its indescribable happiness and Its incalculable value. To hear my child calling Me, because she wants my lessons on the Divine Will, is the greatest feast for Me – the purest joy. If you listen to my lessons, I will call myself fortunate to be your Mama. Oh, how I yearn to have a child who wants to live only of Divine Will! Tell Me, O child, will you make Me content? Will you give your heart, your will, all of yourself, into my maternal hands, that I may prepare you, dispose you, fortify you, empty you of everything, so as to be able to fill you completely with the light of the Divine Will, and form in you Its Divine Life? Place your head upon the Heart of your Celestial Mama, and be attentive in listening to Me, so that my sublime lessons may make you decide never to do your will, but always that of God.

My child, listen to Me: it is my maternal Heart that loves you very much, and wants to pour itself out upon you. Know that I have you here, inscribed in my Heart, and that I love you as my true child. But I feel a sorrow, because I do not see you as similar to your Mama. Do you know what renders us dissimilar? Ah! It is your will that takes away from you the freshness of grace, the beauty that enamors your Creator, the strength that conquers and bears everything, the love that consumes everything. In sum, it is not that Will which animates your Celestial Mama.

You must know that I knew my human will only to keep it sacrificed in homage to my Creator. My life was all of Divine Will; from the first instant of my Conception, I was molded, warmed and placed into Its light, which purified my human seed with Its power, in such a way that I was conceived without original sin. Therefore, if my Conception was spotless and so glorious as to form the honor of the Divine Family, it was only because the Omnipotent Fiat poured Itself upon my seed, and so I was conceived pure and holy. If the Divine Will had not poured Itself upon my seed more than a tender mother, in order to prevent the effects of original sin, I would have encountered the sad destiny of the other creatures – that of being conceived with original sin. Therefore, the primary cause was, entirely, the Divine Will; to It be honor, glory, thanksgiving, for my having been conceived without original sin.

Now, child of my Heart, listen to your Mama: banish your human will; content yourself with dying rather than concede one act of life to it. Your Celestial Mama would have been content with dying thousands and thousands of times, rather than do one single act of my will; don’t you want to imitate Me? Ah! If you keep it sacrificed in honor of your Creator, the Divine Will will take the first step in your soul, and you will feel molded with a celestial aura, purified and warmed, in such a way as to feel the seeds of your passions being annihilated; and you will feel placed in the first steps of the Kingdom of the Divine Will. Therefore, be attentive; if you are faithful in listening to Me, I will guide you, I will lead you by the hand along the interminable ways of the Divine Fiat; I will keep you sheltered under my blue mantel, and you will be my honor, my glory, my victory as well as yours.

The soul:

Immaculate Virgin, take me on your maternal knees, and be my mama. With your holy hands, take possession of my will; purify it, mold it, warm it with the touch of your maternal fingers. Teach me to live only of Divine Will.

Little Sacrifice:

Today, to honor Me, from the morning, and in all of your actions, you will place your will into my hands, telling Me: “My Mama, You Yourself offer the sacrifice of my will to my Creator.”

Ejaculatory Prayer:

My Mama, enclose the Divine Will in my soul, that It may take Its prime place, and form in it Its throne and dwelling.





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Invoke Mary’s help


 Feb 20,2014

5. Come and Do Not Delay

The Prerogatives of the Woman  



All can see it clearly.  Revolutions and violence breaking out where formerly there was peace.  The problems are never solved.  No country is secure because Satan knows the weakness of each country.  He touches the raw nerve and the Achilles heel.  Unrest, protest, violence, deaths and destruction of a nation’s life follow.  The causes lie hidden until the violence breaks forth.  Only when it is too late do people see and understand.

Others say, “It cannot happen here.  Our country is safe.”  You only see the surface of reality.  Your foundations have long ago been weakened.  The hidden evil flows freely in the sewers beneath your streets, only waiting for the right moment to flow over.

By these words, I bring to light the evil that flows everywhere – in your banking systems, in your political life, in your schools, in your homes and in your hearts.  No natural answer exists for these evils.

The world needs a supernatural power which understands and can defeat these evils.  Yet, how many will turn to the supernatural?  The stakes are high and mounting.  I say this clearly.  The whole world is at stake.  Yes, all of earth is ready to be thrust into Satan’s fire.  He will not wait.  He sees that a complete and total victory is soon to be in his grasp.  Once that happens, he will not wait one moment.

For now, he rejoices in his partial victories (and they are everywhere).  However, soon partial victories will be as no victory at all to him, when he will be able to pull everything into his hell on earth.

I wait and I wait.  Only the Woman is a match for him.  I will fight him everywhere, even in hand to hand combat and I will always win.  He knows that and does all he can to delay my coming onto the world stage.  My entrance will be late and will happen through my beloved priest son.  Until then, all must invoke me.  Do not wait.  “O Woman clothed with the sun, come and do not delay”.  Say that often and I will come into your heart and into every situation.

Comment:  Our Lady’s warning and her promise are universal.  Everything will either be captured by Satan or by the Woman.



Our Lady of GuadalupeOUR LADY OF GUADALUPE

“Clothed With The Sun”

by James Leon Holmes

For our Protestant brothers and sisters who stand outside the flow of the great stream of Catholic devotion, no aspect of our faith is less understood and more criticized than our love for and devotion toward the Blessed Virgin. Speaking as one who has taken the plunge from the pier of Protestant piety into the great Catholic stream, I can say from personal experience that the Catholic devotion to Mary is the last aspect of Catholicism to be comprehended by the outsider, yet, to the Catholic, it is as natural and normal as the love of a child for his mother.

The desire which gives impulse to this little essay is that some vessel be constructed which can by God’s grace transport the genuine seeker toward a greater appreciation of Our Lady’s role in God’s plan of redemption.

A Great And Wondrous Sign

The genuine seeker wishing to comprehend Mary’s place in the plan of salvation can begin at no better place than the Twelfth Chapter of the book of Revelation, which describes a woman, an unnamed woman, but one whose place in the Divine Economy is described in the magnificent manner of the disciple whom Jesus loved writing under the inspiration of the Third Person of the Holy Trinity.

The woman, we are told, is a semeion mega, a “great wonder” according to the King James translators, a “great sign” according to the NASB, or a “great and wondrous sign” according to the New International Version. She is signal, a miraculous signal, pointing beyond herself to something or someone else.

The Holy Scriptures are full of references to signs, from the opening chapter of the first book of the Bible, where it is reported that God created the lights in the heavens for signs, to the final book, where we are told again of signs. God gave Moses signs of his Divine commission (Ex. 4), as he gave signs to the apostles to authenticate their authority at the inception of the new dispensation (Acts 2:43). God gave to Moses and the apostles the capacity to perform miracles, and these miracles were tokens or marks by which their contemporaries could see that God authorized them to speak for him.

The woman, however, is a sign of a different nature and a different magnitude. We are not told that she performed a sign. Unlike Moses and the apostles who performed signs, she, herself, is a sign. Not only is she, in her person, a sign, she is a “great sign,” a “great and wondrous” sign.

If the Mosaic and Apostolic signs are inadequate to be true parallels to the woman who is a sign, we come closer to the mark when we recall the sign of God’s covenant with Noah and through him all flesh. God signified his promise to never again purge the earth of living creatures with a flood by setting his bow “in the cloud” (Gen. 9:13). The cloud, which once had been an instrument by which God had poured out his wrath on the earth, now is marked with the beautiful rainbow, a sign of God’s loving plan to preserve his unworthy creatures.

We are reminded that a woman had once been an instrument, not of God but of the serpent, by which destruction had been brought to all mankind. As the cloud was transformed from an instrument of death to a sign of God’s grace, so is the woman.

Clothed With The Sun

In every culture clothing is used not merely as a protective covering but, more importantly, as a means of expressing the personality, character, dignity and station in life of the wearer. This is especially true in the Scriptures, which mention clothing with an astonishing frequency. Joseph was distinguished from his brothers by his coat of many colors (Gen. 37). The Judaic priests were distinguished by their particular clothing (Lev. 8:7). Royal dignity is signified by the finest clothing (Ps. 45:13). John the Baptist, in contrast, wears the most uncomfortable clothing to symbolize his role as the one who proclaimed repentance for forgiveness of sins (Mark 1:6), and his so doing is in keeping with the age-old biblical tradition of tearing one’s clothes to express mortification.

God’s attributes are described as his clothing (Ps. 93:1; 104:1). Similarly, Christians are admonished to be clothed with humility (1 Pet. 5:5) and to put on Christ (Rom. 13:14). In a parable of the kingdom of God that seems quite odd to our modern mentality, Our Lord tells us that the person who attends the royal wedding without the proper attire will be summarily ejected (Matt. 22:11-13).

We must make another observation here. The woman of Rev. 12 appears near the close of God’s public revelation. She is described, as we will see in more detail later, against the backdrop of the biblical description of another woman, one who is described near the commencement of God’s word.

The Book of Genesis tells of the first woman. She was created innocent, and in her innocence she was naked but not ashamed. She lost her innocence through deliberate disobedience of God’s command. Her disobedience and that of her husband brought death to the world. God clothed her, but he clothed her in such a way as to signify her place as the authoress of death. God clothed her with the skin of dead animals.

The contrast between the two women is striking. One is innocent and therefore naked, then sinful and therefore clothed with death. The other is clothed with the sun. We may conclude that she transcends both sinfulness and innocence.

The sun was widely worshipped by pagans in the ancient world. In fact, Sunday was the day for worshipping the sun. Hence, first century Christians with a pagan background would have understood that the woman of Rev. 12 had somehow been clothed with attributes of divinity.

Indeed, Jewish Christians, steeped in the Old Testament, would have understood it the same way. One person in all of Scripture is described in a similar manner, God himself. Psalm 104 describes God as clothing himself “with light as a cloak.” In another place the Psalmist says that “the Lord God is a sun and a shield” (Ps. 84:11).

All Christians, when they read Rev. 12, should recall that when Our Lord was transfigured, his face shone like the sun (Matt. 17:2). When God revealed himself to St. Paul, he did so as a light brighter than the sun (Acts 26:13). In the last day, God’s righteous ones, those who have put on Christ and are admitted into the Father’s kingdom, will “shine forth as the sun” (Matt. 13:43).

We may conclude from all this, not that Our Lady is divine, but that she has in a remarkable way been given some divine attributes, that she has been made a partaker in the divine nature (2 Pet. 1:4). She has already been given the great gift that will be awarded to all the saints in the last day (Matt. 13:43).

The Queen Of Heaven

Our Lady is not only “clothed with the sun,” she has “the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars.” Clearly, we are in the presence of a queen, a queen who is “in heaven” (Rev. 12:1). We are reminded of Joseph, whose dream that the sun and the moon and the eleven stars bowed to him foreshadowed the authority that was to be his (Gen. 37:9).

The moon “is frequently noticed as presaging events of the greatest importance, such as the Second Coming of Christ, through the temporary or permanent withdrawal of its light. (Isa. 13:10; Joel 2:31; Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24)” (Unger’s Bible Dictionary, Moody Press, 1966, p. 757). Scripture uses the phrase “under his feet” elsewhere to signify the ruler/ruled relationship, usually as a description of the authority of the Risen and Ascended Christ over his enemy and all things (Ps. 8:6; Ps. 110:1; 1 Cor. 15:27; Eph. 1:22). It may be stretching a bit, but one possible inference is that the woman in Rev. 12 has authority over the Second Coming of Christ. If that seems farfetched, recall that Our Lord’s first advent required her “be it done unto me”; his first miracle was at her initiative; and the coming of the Paraclete was linked to her intercession.

We note also that Scripture assigns to the sun the authority to rule over the day and to the moon the authority to rule over the night (Gen. 1:16). So, the woman “clothed with the sun” and with “the moon under her feet” may be one to whom God has given authority during both the day and the night.

She also has “on her head a crown of twelve stars.” The twelve stars may have reference to the twelve signs of the zodiac, but more likely the reference is to the twelve tribes of Israel and to the twelve apostles. The woman here is not only Queen of Heaven; she is the Queen of the Church in both the old and new dispensations. One woman comes to mind here: the one who was born under the old dispensation and gave birth to the son whose appearance marked the commencement of the new.

The Queen, The King And The Dragon

We come now to the heart of the passage, a great cosmic drama. The Queen is with child, she is in labor, and she cries out in pain. The hour of her travail precipitates a response. Another sign appears in heaven, this time an ominous one. A great red dragon appears. He stands before the woman, intending to devour her child when it is born. The passage does not tell us why. But we know.

We are seeing here the fulfillment of an age-old prophecy, first made when our parents thrust us all under a death sentence by choosing to follow the serpent rather than God. The vision here is from the perspective of eternity.

The serpent of old, who is identical to the dragon of Rev. 12, had deceived Eve. As a consequence, God told the serpent:

And I will put enmity
Between you and the woman,
And between your seed and her seed;
He shall bruise you on the head,
and you shall bruise him on the heel.
(Gen. 3:15)

Eve, of course, died without his prophecy being fulfilled in her person. There must needs be a second Eve, another woman who would have enmity with the serpent, and whose seed would bruise him on the head while being bruised on the heel.

The extraordinary part of the prophecy is the reference to “her seed.” In biblical physiology, it is man, not woman, who has “seed.” “Her seed” is a prediction of a child to be born without a father. The prophecy is reiterated by Isaiah: “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call his name Immanuel (God with us)” (Isa. 7:14). The virgin who bears a son is a sign from the Lord himself, a sign “in heaven.” Her child is “God with us.”

The fulfillment of the prophecy is recorded from the standpoint of time in the Gospels, and from the standpoint of heaven in Rev. 12. When Rev. 12 reports that the dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth so that he might devour her child, we understand that this is the fulfillment of the prophecy of enmity between the woman and her seed, on the one hand, and the serpent on the other. The Scripture is explicit that the dragon is identical to the serpent of old, who is called the devil and satan, and who deceives the whole world (Rev. 12:9).

The child whom the dragon sought to devour is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron (Rev. 12:5). Unquestionably, the child is Jesus. We recall that Herod sought to murder Jesus at his birth; Satan sought to tempt him to sin in the wilderness; and the authorities executed Jesus at the age of thirty-three. These events constitute the dragon’s attempts to devour the child.

If Jesus is the child whom the dragon sought to devour in Rev. 12, it follows unavoidably that the woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and on her head a crown of twelve stars, the great and wondrous sign, is the virgin mother of Jesus, Mary.

The Defeat Of The Dragon

We have seen that after the serpent had deceived Eve, God told the serpent that he would put enmity between “you and the woman” and between “your seed and her seed.” We have also seen how Rev. 12 describes the fulfillment of that prophecy.

The prophecy does not end with the foretelling of the enmity, nor does Rev. 12 conclude with the description of its fulfillment. “He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel.” The serpent will not prevail in his enmity against the woman and her seed.

In the Gospels we see that the efforts to destroy Jesus by death and by temptation failed. Herod was unsuccessful in his effort to murder the infant Jesus. Satan could not induce Jesus to sin. Although the authorities executed Jesus, he rose again and ascended into heaven where he sat down at the Father’s right hand, which is the place of authority.

So, we are not surprised to read in Rev. 12 that “her child was caught up to God and his throne.” God protected the child so that the dragon was unable to devour him.

There is more. A war is fought in heaven. Michael and his angels overcome Satan and his angels, who are cast out of heaven and down to the earth.

Having been cast down to the earth, the dragon turns his attention to the woman who gave birth to the male child, and he persecutes her, in fulfillment of the prediction of enmity between “you and the woman.” Again, as with “her seed,” the dragon is unsuccessful.

And the two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, in order that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, where she was nourished for a time and times and half a time, from the presence of the serpent. And the serpent poured water like a river out of his mouth after the woman, so that he might cause her to be swept away with the flood. And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and drank up the river which the dragon poured out of his mouth (Rev. 12:14-16).

The two wings of a great eagle were given to the woman, so that she might fly into the wilderness to her place. The eagles’ wings signify the special help of God. When God freed the Israelites from Egypt and miraculously placed them beyond Egyptian power, he described his deliverance in similar language: “You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings, and brought you to myself” (Exod. 19:5). As God intervened on behalf of the Israelites to place them beyond the power of the Egyptians, so he intervenes on behalf of the woman to place her beyond Satan’s power.

We have seen before how Rev. 12 parallels the Gospels, and it does so again here. When Gabriel announced to Mary her special role in God’s place of redemption, he greeted her saying, “Hail, favored one! The Lord is with you” (Luke 1:28). When Mary was troubled, Gabriel reassured her, “You have found favor with God” (Luke 1:30). The words translated “favored one” and “favor” are derived from the Greek word for grace, which is why the earliest Christian scholars translated these passages “Hail, full of grace,” and “You have found grace with God.”

Either way, the meaning is the same. Those whom God favors are the recipients of his grace. A “favored one” of God will be full of grace. Regardless of the translation, the angel greeted Mary with a unique title, a title given no other person in Scripture. When God established his Covenant with Abram, he gave him a new name, Abraham; when he established his covenant with Jacob, he gave him a new name, Israel; and when Jesus called Simon to be the head of the apostles, he gave him a new name, Peter or Rock. Just so, at the inception of the New Covenant, God gave Mary a unique title, “You who are highly favored” in the NIV rendition, or “full of grace.”

Rev. 12 reveals to us the meaning of this title. Not only is Mary the Mother of God, she is placed by God’s special protection beyond the power of Satan. As Jesus was beyond Satan’s power, so is his Mother.

The two wings of the great eagle take her “into the wilderness to her place.” “Her place” is the place in the wilderness “prepared by God” (Rev. 12:6). The woman is in heaven; she is taken into the wilderness; and she goes to a place prepared for her by God. The wilderness is the place to which God took the Israelites when he brought them out of Egypt but before he admitted them to the promised land. Though they were in the wilderness and not the promised land, still God had brought them to Himself (Exod. 19:4).

The wilderness is also the place where Jesus went to be tempted by Satan. As the angels ministered to Jesus following the temptations, so the woman is nourished in the wilderness.

Not only is she in the wilderness, the woman is in a place prepared for her by God. We are reminded that on the eve of his death, Jesus promised his disciples, “I go to prepare a place for you” (John 14:2).

It is a puzzling array of places. The woman is in heaven. She is also in the wilderness, the place of temptation; yet, she is in a place prepared for her by God. She is beyond Satan’s power. Her occupancy of this unique place lasts for one thousand two hundred and sixty days (Rev. 12:6) or “a time and times and half a time” (Rev. 12:14). During this period of time she is nourished and kept from the face of the serpent. “A time and times and half a time” signifies the duration of Satan’s war against God’s people (Dan. 7:25; Dan. 12:7; Rev. 13:5). Hence, the woman is protected from the power of Satan throughout the duration of his war on earth.

Satan’s power brings two things: sin and death. That Jesus was beyond Satan’s power is demonstrated by his sinlessness and his victory over death. If the woman is protected from Satan for “a time and times and half a time,” then she, too, is free from sin and is victorious over death. She is, indeed, highly favored or full of grace.

The woman’s place, however, is more anomalous than that of her child, who “was caught up to God and to his throne.” Though she is in heaven and in a place prepared by Gad, still she is in the wilderness, the place of temptation. She is in the place of temptation, yet beyond temptation.

Not only does God favor her with his special protection, so does the earth. The serpent attempted to destroy the woman with a flood, but the earth opened its mouth and drank up the river that poured from the dragon’s mouth (Rev. 12:15,16). The earth is on the woman’s side.

This represents a reversal of the curse that resulted from the sin of Adam and Eve. God had said to Adam:

Cursed is the ground because of you;
In toil you shall eat of it
All the days of your life.
Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you,
And you shall eat of the plants of the field;
By the sweat of your face
You shall eat bread,
Till you return to the ground,
Because from it you were taken;
For you are dust,
And to dust you shall return
(Gen. 1:17-20).

Eve had been in a garden prepared by God. A fallen angel spoke to her, she believed that fallen angel, and she ate forbidden fruit, along with her husband. As a result the ground was cursed and would no longer cooperate in providing food. The angel Gabriel spoke to Mary. Mary believed Gabriel’s message and gave birth to the Savior. As a result she goes to a place prepared for her by God in the wilderness where she is nourished by God. The earth cooperates with her, protects her. “And the dragon was enraged with the woman” (Rev. 12:17).

Our Mother

Because he was enraged with the woman, the dragon went off “to make war with the rest of her offspring, who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus” (Rev. 12:17). “Her offspring” is, in the Greek, ton spermatos autas, “her sperm” or “her seed.” “The rest of her seed” refers to those in addition to the male child, Jesus, and they are identified as those “who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus.” The author takes pains to remind us again that the woman of Rev. 12 is the second Eve, the one in whom the prophecies of Gen. 3 are fulfilled.

The author is also providing a gloss on the famous comment of Jesus regarding his mother and brothers and sisters in Matt. 12:46-50. While speaking to the multitudes, Jesus was told that his mother and brothers were outside.

But he answered the one who was telling Him and said, “Who is my mother and who are my brothers?” And stretching out His hand toward his disciples, He said, “Behold, my mother and My brothers! For whoever shall do the will of my Father who is in heaven, he is my brother and sister and mother.”

The family of Jesus consists of those who do the will of Jesus’s Father. It follows logically that the mother of Jesus is also the mother of his brothers and sisters. Our author does not leave it to us to draw that conclusion. He tells us explicitly, those who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus have the mother of Jesus as their mother.

It is worth noting here that the Book of Revelation was written by St. John the Apostle, the one whom Jesus loved, the last person to whom Jesus spoke before he died on the cross. Jesus saw his mother “and the disciple whom he loved.” He said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son!” To John he said, “Behold, your mother!” (John 19:26-27). From that hour John took her into his home.

The directives of Jesus to his disciples are commonly accepted as being directions to Christians in all ages. When, for example, he said to Nicodemus, “You must be born again,” and to his disciples, “Go into all the world and make disciples . . . ,” we understand that his statements have universal application and are not limited to the particular individuals before Jesus at the time and place the remarks were made. So, too, as John makes clear in Rev. 12:17, when Jesus said to John, “Behold, your mother,” he was speaking to all Christians in all ages. All who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus should imitate John and take her into their homes.

Eve was the mother of all the living (Gen. 3:20). Mary, the second Eve, is the mother of all who have eternal life.

Hail Mary

The premise of this little collection of reflections is a very simple one. Since the male child in Rev. 12 is Jesus, the mother of the male child in Rev. 12 is the mother of Jesus, Mary. The great Catholic devotion to Mary is rooted in a straightforward acceptance of this beautiful passage of Scripture at face value.

While this observation may be surprising to some, it should not be. Most of the Catholic distinctives that are criticized by our Evangelical brothers are rooted in taking Scripture at face value. “Unless one is born of the water and the Spirit, he cannot see the Kingdom of God” (John 3:5). “Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves” (John 6:53). “This is my body which is given for you” (Luke 22:19). “All of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus have been baptized into his death” (Rom. 6:3). “Baptism now saves you” (1 Pet. 3:21). “You are Peter (the rock) and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not overpower it” (Matt. 16:18). “If you forgive the sins of any, their sins have been forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they have been retained” (John 20:23).

As we believe that these passages mean just what they say, so also we believe that the Mother of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke is also the Mother of Jesus in the twelfth chapter of the Book of Revelation.

She is protected from the power of Satan for the entire duration of his war against humanity, and so she is free from sin and the corruption of death. We recognize her authority, because she is clothed with the sun, the moon is under her feet, and she wears on her head a crown of twelve stars. She is the Queen of Heaven. She is the mother of those who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus. Though she is beyond the power of Satan, still she is with us in the wilderness, the place of temptation, the place between the slavery of Egypt and the promised land. So, like a good mother, she can come to our aid. Though she is Queen of Heaven, she is still with us, and she can speak to us. She is a sign, a great and wondrous sign, pointing to her Son, telling us to do whatever he says.

As God has honored her and continues to honor her, so do we. We, like all generations, call her blessed. Hail, Mary!

Dr. James Leon Holmes is a lawyer in Little Rock, Arkansas. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Duke University and formerly was a tutor at Thomas Aquinas College in Santa Paula, Calif. He, his wife and his five children were received into the Church in 1989. This is his first article in HPR.






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 Divine Mercy #1

The Feast of Divine Mercy Sunday is prominent worldwide.

On This Feast of Divine Mercy, April 27, The Canonization of Popes John Paul II and John XXIII lend special significance in 2014



This year the devotion will get more international attention as the canonization Mass for Blessed John XXIII and Blessed John Paul II is scheduled to begin at 10 a.m. April 27. Pilgrims are expected to begin filling St. Peter’s Square early in the morning and will have an opportunity to participate in the recitation of the Divine Mercy chaplet, a series of prayers focusing on the gifts of God’s mercy, especially shown through the passion of Christ. Pope John Paul decided in 2000 to put the devotion on the Church’s universal calendar the Sunday after Easter. Presiding over the first universal observance of Divine Mercy Sunday in 2001, Pope John Paul quoted from his 1980 encyclical “Dives in Misericordia” (“Rich in Mercy”): The cross and resurrection of Christ speak and never cease “to speak of God the Father, who is absolutely faithful to his eternal love for man … believing in this love means believing in mercy.” Meeting in March with priests from the Diocese of Rome, Pope Francis said one of the greatest inspirations of Pope John Paul was his intuition that “this was a time for mercy.” St. Faustina Kowalska is the Polish nun who promoted the Divine Mercy devotion and was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 2000. The devotion began in the late 1930s by St. Faustina, who had a vision of Jesus where he asked for devotions to divine mercy.







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Adriana Pallotti


 Adriana Pallotti is a wonderful lady who lives in San Giovanni Rotondo (Foggia – Italy), where she founded the “House of Prayer for the Kingdom of the Divine Will”. She is originally from Modena (Northern Italy), but she moved to San Giovanni Rotondo many years ago, “ live close to Padre Pio..”, as she says. Padre Pio, then, became her Confessor and Spiritual Director.

In San Giovanni Rotondo, she attended the Cenacles of Federico Abresch on the Divine Will, when Luisa was still alive.

During the 40’s, Federico Abresch became a close friend and disciple of Luisa. He used to visit her house and learn,

directly from her and from her manuscripts, of the Sublime Truths of Living in the Divine Will. He also exchanged

frequent correspondence with Luisa. Federico Abresch, a Franciscan Tertiary. Complying with wishes of Padre Pio of

Pietrelcina, he was the first apostle of the Divine Will in S. Giovanni Rotondo and did much to spread Luisa Piccarreta’s

In the following interview, made in 1994 on the occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Transit into Heaven of Luisa

Piccarreta, Miss Adriana Pallotti gives clear testimony on the fact that Padre Pio knew and loved Luisa and her Writings.

She also gives wonderful testimony on the conversion of Federico Abresch through Padre Pio, on the First “Divine Will”

Cenacle in the San Giovanni Rotondo, and on direct and specific comments of Padre Pio regarding the spreading of the

writings of Luisa.

In San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy with Padre Bucci


Andriana Pallotti with Fr. Bucci

Interview with Andriana Pallotti at San Giovanni Rotondo – Foggia – Italy


Interviewer = I Adriana Pallotti = AP 

I – Well. Adriana, we are very happy to have you with us today, to witness to the world, which is getting to know Luisa.

We know that you are very important in this process, since you have been one of the first and most persevering persons to

spread this message, so important for the world. We would like to hear from you a little bit about your story. Let’s start

from the beginning, when you came here to San Giovanni Rotondo. How did you begin your growth under the guidance

of Padre Pio, and then, your first meetings with Federico Abresch?

AP – I came to live here, in San Giovanni Rotondo in 1945, when I heard from some friends that here there was a saint, so

great, so holy, and with the stigmata. I decided to leave the house of my father and all my things to come here, to live in

poverty close to Padre Pio. After a few years, I met Federico Abresch, who was a German man, converted by Padre Pio.

He had come to live in San Giovanni.


I – Wasn’t Federico a doctor, from Bologna?

AP – No. Federico was a photographer, who had established his laboratory in Bologna.

I – …And how did he arrive here?

AP – He was here because a friend of his invited him to come and visit this great saint. He didn’t know him, but he came

out of curiosity. As soon as his eyes met the eyes of Padre Pio, his heart was touched and he felt the desire to kneel at

Padre Pio’s feet. And Padre Pio told him: ‘What are you doing here after so many years without going to Confession?!’

He said: ‘Father, please help me!’

And Padre Pio: ‘Start from your last Confession!… No, I don’t mean this confession now… I mean from your last

Confession before you got married!’ So he started his new Confession and then, touched by the words of Padre Pio, he

was converted. After his conversion, he started to go around in search for spiritual things and beautiful souls. He heard

that there was a saint in Corato, bedridden for 70 years, so he went to visit this soul, who began to talk to him about

beautiful spiritual things on the Divine Will. He was very touched, and continued to visit Luisa with the permission of

Padre Pio. Luisa continued to talk to him about living in the Divine Will, and he wrote notes.

Sometimes, he saw her when she received the stigmata. One day, he was visiting Luisa and saw her bed shaking. He

asked: ‘What’s happening?’ And Luisa said: ‘I suffer, I suffer! – but gladly!’ She was suffering the Passion of Jesus.

Abresch went to her very often, also with his little son Pio, who was three years old. He asked: ‘So, what are we going to

do with this little boy… a Priest?’ And Luisa said: ‘Eh, eh, let’s pray.’ In fact, Pio became a priest and now he is in the

Vatican. Abresch always continued to go to her. He learned from her diaries, which she wrote at night. He would copy

them and then return them to Luisa. We learned this spirituality from him, since he always continued to keep these

I – So he started his first little cenacles…

AP – Yes, at night we used to go and listen to his talks about Luisa. We were enthusiastic! I couldn’t wait to go there,

every Saturday night. We were about 5 or 6. He spoke every week for one hour and a half, but we never wanted him to

stop, so much we loved this spirituality! It was about to give our human will to God, and to receive His Will in exchange,

so as to become divinized… In hearing this, we felt that we had found Paradise on earth! We were enthusiastic, and Padre

Pio was happy too.

Once I asked Padre Pio: ‘Father, is it good for me to listen, write and print the writings of Luisa Piccarreta? And he said:

‘Yes! Repeat it!’ So, I asked again: ‘Father, can I give some money to Andrea Magnifico to buy the equipment to print the

books of Luisa? And he again: ‘Yes!!!’ So I understood that it was really the Will of God to have the writings

printed…and we did it.

I – In which year did Federico start these conferences?

AP – Before I came, in 1945, he had already started with another group.

I – So, Luisa was still alive…

AP – ….yes, Luisa was still living.

I – …so, you started during the 50’s…

AP – …Yes, I started from the 50’s to talk about Luisa in my home to my guests. All were enthusiastic about this

spirituality of the Divine Will…

I – Who were some of the other souls?…You and who else?..


AP – There was a certain Giulietta Marchi from Bologna…She was very happy… Jesus spoke to this beautiful soul… She

died all of a sudden, after many years in which we were going together to Abresch. Before dying she told me: ‘Adriana,

you must get some tapes and record all that Abresch says, because in the future you will have to talk about this

spirituality…. The Lord wants this, because He wants to free us from the misery of the human will, in order for us to live

in a divine manner!…

I – Tell us about Andrea. When did you meet him?

AP – Andrea Magnifico from Milan came to my home to “change air.” I told him that we were going to listen to Abresch

who spoke about the spirituality of a certain Luisa from Corato, who lived in bed for many years…. and that the

spirituality that Jesus taught to Luisa was so sublime and so great that we felt that were living in Heaven,.. no longer on

earth! He said: ‘I want to come and listen’ And after he came he said: ‘Oh Finally! I had asked St. Joseph to let me know

if there was something, in the spiritual life, much greater than the things I knew…. And here it is! St. Joseph is now letting

me discover this great novelty….much greater than anything else

I – …So he started to make copies of the books…

AP – Yes, he started with photocopies, which we gave to many people… and we started to distribute them also to Priests

and others. Many souls followed them and were very happy about these spiritual lessons which Jesus had given to Luisa,

and which – through Luisa – we were able to know.

I – Are there other things that – as you remember – Padre Pio said about the DivineWill? Did you talk with Padre Pio

about Luisa?

AP – Yes, I asked him if it was a good thing to get a recorder in order to tape the writings of Luisa….and I went to Milan

to buy a recorder, because here I couldn’t find a good one… I asked him and he said: ‘Yes!!!’ After this other positive

answer…I went to Milan to get it.

I – …So he was aware of this…

AP – Yes, yes, yes, very much… Even more, among the young people who came to Abresch to listen to the lessons on the

Divine Will, one of them told us that he went to Confession to Padre Pio, asking him: ‘Father, is it true that the Blessed

Mother is Great not because She has been the Mother of God,.. for her virginity…her being Immaculate, but because – as

Luisa says in the writings – She never did Her human will, but only and exclusively the Will of God?’ Padre Pio

answered: ‘Yes, my son, this is the truth! This is the truth!’ And he continued: ‘Father, allow me to ask you one more

thing. Is it true that Jesus would have remained on the Cross even till the end of the world in order to save the humanity?…

And that His Cross is long as much as the centuries, and large as much as humanity?’ And Padre Pio: ‘Yes, my son, this is

the truth! This is the truth!’ And he said: ‘Father, please, can we hug each other?’ And they hugged.

I – Adriana, you have been reading about this spirituality, teaching it to many people, for years. What does this spirituality

of Luisa mean to you?

AP – It means that as we give to the Lord our own will, and we no longer use it, receiving His Will in exchange, we feel

such an interior peace that we are able to bear things that, humanly speaking, we were not able to suffer. But with His

Divine Will, the Lord gives us His Power, His Divine Power…His Creative Power.

I – He says that these writings will renew the face of the earth…

AP – …we will live on earth as the Blessed in Heaven…. It is the fulfillment of the Our Father!

I – …so, in you opinion, this is the future of the Church…

AP – Yes, in the writings of Luisa it is said that when the Church will possess them, there will be a fire within the

Church… It will be that same fire which the Gospel talks about: ‘They came to bring the fire on earth. Oh, how I wish that

it could be already burning…’ This is the fire of the Divine Will!!!


I – …and do you think that Luisa herself is important in this? I mean, is it possible for people to know the Divine Will

without knowing Luisa?

AP – The two things go together!

I – Is Luisa a saint?

AP – … remaining in bed for all those years, writing all these things…Of course!! We know from Abresch, who knew

Luisa personally, that Jesus Himself called her “My Divine Luisa… I exalted her up to the highest Seraphim”

I – Will she be Canonized, in your opinion?

AP – It might be that the Lord does not need this, since He is already glorified if we live this spirituality. If we do it, this is

His Glory! But it is up to us to live this spirituality…so that It may open its ways. In this way Luisa is “ipso facto” (by

fact) a Saint!

I – Well. Is there anything else you would like to tell us? What would be your advice to someone who has just heard about

the Divine Will for the first time?

AP – If these souls have sufferings, problems and many other things, they can say the Lord: ‘Lord, I can do nothing, but I

know that You can do everything. Take my will, and come to act in me,…to work, to walk, to breathe, to suffer in me…’

As we empty ourselves and let Him do, our lives become more simple,… and perfect. It will be easier to proceed along

the path of this life.

I – Are you happy to have known this spirituality?

AP – It has been the greatest grace I have received on this earth. Even greater than knowing Padre Pio, who has been a

great Confessor and Spiritual Director,… But with this spirituality we become divinized. We find this also in the Gospel,

but Jesus teaches this to Luisa with many examples, which make it easy and attractive. This is the greatest grace for us,

which allows us to bear and suffer things that we could not bear before; but with the suffering of Jesus within us,

everything becomes easy!

I – Very well Adriana. May God bless you always. Thank you.

AP – Thank you.

I – Adriana, do you know whether Padre Pio did ever read any of the writings of Luisa?

AP – One lady who went to Confession to Padre Pio told him that she had read the Hours of the Passion. Padre Pio said: ‘I

read it four times! Oh, how beautiful! And now, another one is about to come out – about the Blessed Virgin in the

Kingdom. Oh, how beautiful that one too!’ So, Padre Pio was aware of everything that came from Luisa’s hands.

I – Is it possible that he was reading the Hour of the Passion when he received the stigmata?

AP – It is possible. It is said that they found a “pool of his tears” on the floor of the Chapel, when he meditated on the

I – Adriana, do you know whether any vocations matured from the conferences of Federico Abresch?

P – Yes, many vocations! For example there was a young lady, who left her boyfriend to become a cloistered nun. When

Padre Pio told her that those things were the truth, she said: ‘So, what am I doing here in the world? I want to be in a

Convent and lead a cloistered life.’ So she went and died in the Convent. Also, other young people, when they heard

Abresch talking about this spirituality – which is living on earth as the Saints and the Blessed live in Heaven – decided to

become priests or monks…. Yes, listening to Abresch… saying that, as we exchange our miserable human will, which is

only capable of evil, with the Divine Will, we start living in a divine way, and our acts become like shining suns…like

stars…divine things! So they said: ‘What are doing in the world? We’d rather spend our lives thinking about these


























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