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TITLE 17 > CHAPTER 1 > § 107

§ 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use

How Current is This?

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—

(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;

(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;

(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and

(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.—-000-&sourcedate=2010-06-28&proctime=Tue%20Jun%2029%2009:57:24%202010

Updates to this section of the United States Code

Title 17 > Chapter 1 > Section 107

§ 107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use

Title 17 of the US Code as currently published by the US Government reflects the laws passed by Congress as of Feb.1, 2010, and it is this version that is published here.

However, the long codification process by The office of the Law Revision Counsel (LRC) starts very quickly after any new legislation with “classification” to corresponding US Code sections. They put these in “Classification Tables” and make them available to us all at

See for explanations about the US Code from the folks who put it all together at the LRC. Look for information about what it is and is not, which titles are “positive law”, the schedule of Supplements, etc. Under “download” you can find the source data we use here (GPO locator files) as well as PDF files that look just like the paper books (watch out for file sizes).

See to look for changes that have not yet made it into the classification tables.

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